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25 December 2022, Volume 42 Issue 6 Previous Issue   
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Perspective of extraterrestrial carbon dioxide conversion and utilization technologies
LIU Shiyuan, Zhang Ce, YIN Zhao, YANG Jinlu, YAO Wei, YANG Mengfei
2022, 42 (6):  1-11.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2022.0078
Abstract ( 87 )   PDF (8245KB) ( 71 )  
The development of more efficient extraterrestrial CO2 conversion and utilization technologies is an urgent need for improving the oxygen recovery rate and energy conversion efficiency,and solving insufficient mass supplement of future long-term manned extraterrestrial survival.The current development of the recent extraterrestrial CO2 utilization and representative researches were reviewed.It is necessary to opt for the appropriate technology with full consideration of extraterrestrial environmental constraints in the space application for the large differences among different technologies.The Sabatier device and the MOXIE device have been tested for CO2 conversion and O2 production on International Space Station and on Mars,respectively.What′s more,extraterrestrial artificial photosynthesis,as the representative of ambient CO2 conversion and utilization technology,provides a new route for ECLSS,which can not only realize extraterrestrial O2 supply,but also obtain a variety of fuels or biological raw material such as formic acid,ethylene and methane.With the development of basic researches,it is expected to realize highly efficient CO2 conversion and the production of high value-added organic matter like sugar.The development of extraterrestrial carbon dioxide conversion technology will solve the waste resource utilization and mass recycle in the confined environment of extraterrestrial space,and reduce the mass supply demand.It will also provide innovative ideas for ISRU on the Mars to support future affordable and sustainable extraterrestrial survival missions.
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Research progress of on-board absolute radiometric calibration for optical remote sensing satellite
MAN Yiyun, CHEN Shiping
2022, 42 (6):  12-22.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2022.0079
Abstract ( 47 )   PDF (8159KB) ( 37 )  
In order to realize the quantificational application for optical remote sensing satellites,the very important precondition is the absolute radiometric calibration and correction.The status and characteristics of some typical absolute radiometric calibration were introduced,and the methods of absolute radiometric calibration for typical solar reflective spectrum optical remote sensing satellites were analyzed,including onboard calibration device of the remote sensor,stellar and lunar calibration,high accuracy reference crosscalibration satellite and piggy-back calibrator.The first two methods were on orbit and the accuracy was better than 2%~5%,the last two methods are in development and the accuracy will be better than 1%.The development trend and revelation were summarized and some discussion were made in the end.
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Research progress and prospect of on-orbit additive manufacturing technology
LIU Jie, SHI Yun, CUI Yutao, HOU Juan, ZHANG Kai, HUANG Aijun
2022, 42 (6):  23-34.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2022.0080
Abstract ( 85 )   PDF (5450KB) ( 101 )  
In-space additive manufacturing technology is a “space 3D” printing technology,which has attracted major attention due to its application in on-orbit manufacturing and space base additive manufacturing.The basic concepts were introduced and the progress of space on-orbit additive manufacturing technology in the world was summarized.With the requirement of space stations and on-orbit spacecraft,the significant challenge of in-space additive manufacturing was the raw materials,printing technology and equipment.This was attributed to the unique feature of the space environment,including microgravity and high vacuum,etc. Finally,based on the current development status,requirements,and possible implementation paths of in-space onorbit manufacturing technology,the development direction of in-space additive manufacturing was pointed out.
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Study on braking mechanism of planetary probe based on plasma magnetic shell
DONG Yicheng, WANG Weizong, ZHANG Jinrui, QI Yue, YAN Jiaqi
2022, 42 (6):  35-45.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2022.0081
Abstract ( 109 )   PDF (4177KB) ( 54 )  
Plasma magnetic shell braking technology is a new braking method for planetary probes.It has the advantages of adjustable braking resistance,high reliability and light structure mass.In this paper,a numerical simulation on the generation mode and working mechanism of plasma magnetic shell brake was carried out.Firstly,taking the braking of a Martian spacecraft as the background,the plasma magnetic shell was simplified to a cylindrical configuration,and the macroscopic model of the plasma magnetic shell was established.From the model,the relationship of braking resistance,effective capture area and spacecraft velocity changing with the orbital height was obtained.Then,the interaction between ions,electrons and secondary neutral particles in the plasma magnetic shell was studied,the microscopic model of the plasma magnetic shell was established,the rule of the plasma particle number density and temperature changing with time was obtained.The braking resistance calculated by the microscopic model is consistent with that of the macroscopic model,which verifies the validity of the two models.
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Research of VGOS baseband data pre-processing system
GAN Jiangying, GUO Shaoguang, HE Xuan, LIU Cong, SUN Zhengxiong, LI Jiyun , MA Langming, SHU Fengchun, ZHANG Xiuzhong
2022, 42 (6):  46-53.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2022.0082
Abstract ( 44 )   PDF (11108KB) ( 156 )  
The data acquisition system of very long baseline interferometry global observation system(VGOS) has ultra-broad recording bandwidth and ultra-high data rate.The data rate is stable up to 16Gbit/s.Pre-processing such as data playback and analysis is the key step from data acquisition to data correlation.For the domestic VGOS acquisition system,a VGOS baseband data pre-processing system was developed;the metadata and baseband data format of high-speed recorded data were analyzed;the pre-processing modules such as data recording,gathering,de-thread and rechannel were designed and implemented.Through the research and test of the preprocessing system,the methods to improve its efficiency were analyzed.Moreover,the preprocessing system was successfully used to replay and analyze the observation data of international VGOS station,and the interference fringes were successfully obtained through data correlation processing.All of these show that the data pre-processing system can correctly process high-speed data.The average data gathering rate can reach up to 10Gbit/s and the de-thread efficiency can reach to 3.6Gbit/s,which achieves the current goals of ultrawideband and ultra-high speed processing of VGOS observation’s baseband data.
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Maneuver control strategy for CubeSat′s orbit change mission
ZHANG Kewen, PAN Baisong
2022, 42 (6):  54-63.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2022.0083
Abstract ( 38 )   PDF (6887KB) ( 42 )  
For the realization of CubeSat orbit change and flying,a hybrid control method was proposed to realize the mission requirements of the continuous orbit change of CubeSat based on the modular thruster system.The multiunit CubeSat has one single main thruster,and the orbital change maneuver was based on the Gauss′ variational equations using continuous low thrust.In order to realize the pointing adjustment of CubeSat thruster,the PD controller was utilized based on the attitude dynamics model,to calculate the required torque to control the pointing angle and the angular velocity.For the discontinuous feature of the micro-pulse plasma thruster(μ-PPT),the required torque was obtained by searching for the optimal pulse sequence combination of μ-PPT allocation,which was used for continuous compensation of the external disturbances,as well as stabilizing and pointing the main thruster.In addition,the sensitivity threshold of attitude error was introduced to improve the robustness of the control system while reducing the consumption of μ-PPT.Finally,the specific mission analysis of a 3U CubeSat′s orbital flying and transferring was presented,which shows that the proposed hybrid control strategy can meet the mission requirement based on the micro propulsion system.
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Space-based TT & C relay system of launch vehicle during satellite orbit entry
WEI Wei, CHEN Sanchu, DUN Yi, HUA Qing, WANG Yufei, GAN Lin
2022, 42 (6):  64-70.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2022.0084
Abstract ( 37 )   PDF (3162KB) ( 24 )  
 In order to meet the demand of transmitting down the key telemetry parameters and transmitting up the remote control command in the period of satellite orbit entry,a launch vehicle space-based TT & C relay system during satellite orbit entry was designed.The scheme was mainly based on rocket ready-made space-based TT & C terminal and satellite ready-made TT & C equipment.The composition,working principle and workflow of the relay system were introduced,the beam pointing algorithm for spacebased TT & C phased array antenna was studied,and a kind of ground test system for satellite telemetry relay and remote control communication function was designed.The relay system completed two flight tests in KZ-1A flying commission,the relay forward data of satellite was intact,and the carrier to noise ratio of the satellite communication terminal were all greater than 20dB.The bit signaltonoise ratio of space-based telemetry return signal received by ground TT&C center had more than 3dB margins to the receiving threshold.The test shows that the relay system has sufficient communication link margin and reliable operation,which can save more than half of the cost compared with the support of ground TT & C resources or the use of space-based TT & C by the satellite itself.
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Research on relative position and attitude measurement of visible light/laser combination
WEI Jianyu, KANG Guohua, WU Junfeng, ZHAO Teng, QIU Yuhuan, XU Chuanxiao
2022, 42 (6):  71-78.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2022.0085
Abstract ( 32 )   PDF (3619KB) ( 24 )  
Aiming at the disappearance of feature points in the scene of ultra close docking of reconfigurable spacecraft modules,a high-precision relative pose measurement method based on visible light/laser was proposed.According to this method,the initial relative roll angle error is corrected by the combination of visible light and laser,and the coarse calibration is completed.Then,the accurate relative pose is calculated by laser two-dimensional double mirror reflection method to obtain high-precision relative pose data.The simulation results show that,under the existing technical conditions,this method can realize the relative pose measurement accuracy of ±1.2mm and ±0.03° without relying on visual feature points when the relative distance of the module is within 100cm,which lays a foundation for the ultra close and highprecision pose control of the module spacecraft docking.
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Dynamics modeling and integrated attitude pointing control of a Stewart platform satellite
DONG Ailei, LYU Liangliang, CAI Guoping, WU Yongjun
2022, 42 (6):  79-88.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2022.0086
Abstract ( 32 )   PDF (5702KB) ( 42 )  
Aiming at the steering control problem of the Stewart platform satellite after a large range of rapid maneuvering,a dynamics modeling and an integrated control method for attitude pointing of the Stewart platform satellite were proposed,which took into account the flexibility of the solar panel.The dynamics modeling and active control of Stewart platform satellite were investigated to improve this pointing accuracy of the platform load in such satellite.A rigidflexible coupling accurate dynamics model based on the fundamental principle of mechanics and the mixed coordinate method was established and a control design method considering platform load pointing and vibration isolation was presented.The numerical simulation results demonstrate that the established dynamics model can effectively describe the dynamics behavior of the system,and the control method can achieve higher attitude pointing accuracy.Compared with the situation without the control,the scheme can reduce the deformation of the supporting rod to one thousandth and ensure the structural safety.In addition,the effect of windsurfing flexibility on satellite attitude control of Stewart platform was also analyzed.The results show that the flexibility of solar panel has a great influence on the attitude accuracy of the lower platform and has a small effect on the attitude accuracy of the upper platform.
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Orbit prediction algorithm for space debris cluster based on polynomial approximation
ZHANG Zhen, CHEN Jianlin, SUN Chong, FANG Qun, ZHU Zhanxia
2022, 42 (6):  89-98.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2022.0087
Abstract ( 39 )   PDF (1953KB) ( 55 )  
It is important to analyze the orbital evolution behavior of space debris cluster quickly and accurately for collision avoidance of spacecraft in orbit.Under the action of each perturbation force,the evolutionary movement of space debris cluster presents complex nonlinear characteristics.The space debris population has a large number of individuals.If the orbital integration of each space debris in the space debris population is used to analyze the population prediction,the amount of calculation will be too large.To solve this problem,a fast orbit prediction method based on polynomial approximation was proposed.This method divided space debris cluster into a small number of nominal fragments and a large number of other associated fragments.For orbit prediction of nominal debris,numerical integration was used to ensure the accuracy of prediction.For a large number of other associated debris orbit prediction problems,polynomial Taylor expansion semi-analytical method was used,so as to effectively reduce the calculation of space debris cluster orbit prediction on the precondition of ensuring the prediction accuracy.Orbit prediction simulations for different space debris cluster were carried out.The simulation results show that when the orbit prediction accuracy is set within 1 meter,the calculation efficiency of polynomial approximation algorithm is 2.2 to 17.2 times higher than that of Monte Carlo method,which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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Flow-based super-resolution reconstruction of remote sensing images
REN Shubo, MENG Qian, WU Zuan
2022, 42 (6):  99-108.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2022.0088
Abstract ( 30 )   PDF (7041KB) ( 24 )  
In order to improve the quality of super-resolution reconstruction of remote sensing images,a flow-based remote sensing image reconstruction algorithm was proposed.First,the improved RRDB architecture was introduced on the basis of the Glow model for low-resolution image feature extraction,and more layers and connections were built to improve the stability of training.Then,a pure data-driven flow model was used to train the parameters of the distribution,and the method of maximizing the negative log-likelihood was optimized to obtain the loss function of the algorithm.Experiments show that the model can quickly reach a stable convergence state during the network training process and has a strong generalization ability.The reconstructed image quality was compared with SRCNN,SRGAN,ESRGAN.After testing,it is found that the proposed algorithm is far superior to the SRCNN algorithm,and that it also has obvious advantages compared with other algorithms.The reconstructed image not only has improved indicators,for example,PSRN and SSIM increase by 15% and 40% respectively compared with SRCNN,but also has better clarity and richer high-frequency details.
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Life prediction of 30cm ion thruster for deep space exploration
GENG Hai, LI Xingda, JIA Lianjun, JIA Yanhui, WU Chenchen, SUN Mingming, SUN Xinfeng
2022, 42 (6):  107-114.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2022.0089
Abstract ( 168 )   PDF (7619KB) ( 118 )  
 In order to evaluate the lifetime of 30cm ion thruster,the thruster lifetime prediction method based on finite life test and simulation model was proposed.The grid hole sputtering erosion model was established by PIC-MCC method.The lifetime prediction research of 30cm ion thruster was carried out.The grid hole etching rate,electric field and ion extraction characteristics were analyzed,and the lifetime prediction value was given.The simulation results are in good agreement with measured values,and the error is less than 20%,which shows the modification of the model based on the measured values of grid holes in each life test section is effective.According to the simulation results,the deceleration grid is the first to fail after the 10000h life test.The estimated lifetime of 30cm ion thruster under the maximum(3kW)condition is 36000h,which can meet the long-lifetime requirements of the electric propulsion system for the small celestial body exploration mission.
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Ion beam characteristics of iodine RF ion thruster optical system
ZHANG Yuanzhe, HAN Xianwei, YANG Zhenyu, LU Haifeng, TAN Chang
2022, 42 (6):  115-124.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2022.0090
Abstract ( 165 )   PDF (5836KB) ( 84 )  
Based on the particlein cell(PIC)method,a numerical simulation on iodine RF ion thruster optics system was carried out to analyze characteristics of ion beam.Besides substantial I+,ionization products of iodine contain a little multivalent ions including I2+,I2+,I3+.Comparison of ion beam characteristics′ simulation results with and without addition of multivalent ions obtained spatial distribution of ions,potential distribution,phase space distribution,beam current and divergence angle.The results show that the program can simulate the motion of ions in optics system properly.With addition of multivalent ions,plasma potential increases and saddle point potential declines,though the variation range of the whole potential distribution is limited.The charge-to-mass ratio of the ion group increases slightly with addition of multivalent ions,therefore beam current increases and divergence angle declines a little.Both thrust and specific impulse increase slightly through theoretical analysis.When the plasma density in discharge chamber increases to about 2.4×1017m-3,the optics system reaches the limit of beam extraction,and extracted beam current decreases instead of increasing with proceeding increase of plasma density.The simulation results can provide a reference for design of RF ion thruster optics system.
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Experiment of liquid nonlinear rotary sloshing and simulation by equivalent mechanical model 
DENG Mingle, LI Youxia, XU Hongyan, WU Wenjun, HUANG Hua, YUE Baozeng
2022, 42 (6):  125-133.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2022.0091
Abstract ( 36 )   PDF (7698KB) ( 29 )  
Spacecraft in-orbit maneuver can lead to complex dynamic behaviors of liquid fuel,including nonlinear sloshing.The moving pulsation ball model(MPBM) was used to study the nonlinear rotary sloshing of liquid.The accuracy of MPBM was verified by ground sloshing experiment.Firstly,the influence of gravity was considered as the form of sloshing recovery force during the modeling process of MPBM.Specifically,the effect of gravity was introduced into the energy change process of the pulsating sphere based on virtual work principle.Secondly,the ground sloshing experiment platform was built to realize the accurate observation of the sloshing phenomenon of the spherical tank and the real-time measurement of the sloshing force and the sloshing moment.Finally,based on the acceleration excitation and sloshing force measured in the experiment,MPBM was used to simulate and compare the simulation results.The simulation results matched the experimental results well.The reasonable abstraction of liquid sloshing in this paper further improves the simulation ability of the equivalent mechanical model for complex sloshing behaviors,and provides basis for the realization of more efficient and accurate in-orbit control.
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Dielectric surface charging potential inversion method based on BP neural network
ZHANG Chengyue, QUAN Ronghui, ZHANG Haicheng
2022, 42 (6):  134-139.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2022.0092
Abstract ( 39 )   PDF (3593KB) ( 30 )  
To realize the comprehensive and real-time risk analysis of in-orbit satellites' charge-discharge, a BP neural network for the surface potential inversion of dielectrics commonly used on satellites with the Kapton surface potential was built based on the relation between surface charging of different materials in the same environment.The Kapton surface potential and the materials thickness were taken as the inputs, while the surface potential of other dielectric materials were taken as the model outputs.By using the surface charging model established by COMSOL to train the neural network, the inversion error was reduced to less than 10%.The accuracy of the inversion model was verified by the surface-charge-experiment data of Kapton and Teflon.The results show that the relative error between the inversion value and the experimental value is less than 16%.
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A novel high-speed single-event-upset self-recoverable latch design
LIU Zhongyang, ZHANG Haineng, YANG Xu, ZHANG Zhengxuan, Hu Zhiyuan, BI Dawei
2022, 42 (6):  140-148.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2022.0093
Abstract ( 37 )   PDF (4990KB) ( 36 )  
 The continuous improvement of the clock frequency of integrated circuits in spacecraft makes the influence of single-event-upset (SEU)on sequential logic become more and more severe,so there is an urgent need to design highly reliable circuits for aerospace applications.Most of the published radiation-hardened latches do not have self-recoverable internal nodes after being affected by a SEU,what′s worse is that they also have high overhead in area,power consumption and delay.In order to solve these problems,a novel highspeed single-event-upset self-recoverable latch based on 130nm partially-depleted silicon on insulator (PD-SOI),combined with radiation-hardened design was proposed.The working principle and simulation results have validated the SEU self-recoverable ability of the proposed latch.Compared with the other self-recoverable latches,the proposed latch greatly reduced the area and delay at the expense of partial power consumption.Detailed comparisons demonstrate that our design saves 71.14% area-powerdelay product (APDP)on average compared with other considered radiation-hardened latches,which means the proposed latch is a promising candidate for future highly reliable advanced aerospace applications.
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