25 April 2024, Volume 44 Issue 2 Previous Issue   
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Review of space target positioning algorithms based on space-based optical detection
LI Yao, CHEN Xin, RAO Peng
2024, 44 (2):  1-15.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0017
Abstract ( 25 )   PDF (6075KB) ( 25 )  
In recent years,the field of space target localization has developed rapidly by integrating detection technologies such as sensor-network collaboration and multi-mode fusion.Positioning methods based on space-based optical detection are widely used in civil and national defense fields with their unique advantages of good concealment and high measurement accuracy.In order to analyze the localization methods suitable for different types of spatial targets in different scenarios,small space target positioning methods based on space-based optical detection were reviewed.Firstly,the development of space-based optical detection technology,the classification and characteristics of space targets,and the concept of space target localization were introduced.Secondly,the positioning methods based on single satellite or multi-satellites suitable for small and weak spatial targets were analyzed.The joint positioning of heterogeneous sensors proposed in recent years was explained.Besides,the error analysis model of spatial target positioning was established according to the imaging process.The proportion of factors influencing positioning accuracy was analyzed.Finally,the summary and outlook were made based on the existing problems.
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Research progress on size effect of three-dimensional lattice structure manufactured by selective laser melting
PENG Chengkuan, QI Junfeng, SHAO Heng
2024, 44 (2):  16-29.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0018
Abstract ( 14 )   PDF (10774KB) ( 8 )  
The three-dimensional lattice structure technology is an innovative technology with both lightweight and function-structure integrated design.The selective laser melting technology for lattice structure forming faces serious size effect problems when forming cross-scale structures and gradient structures,which restricts the application and promotion of lattice structure.The “shape” and “performance” of the characteristic structure are important criteria for evaluating the printing quality.Therefore,taking the characteristic structure of three-dimensional lattice-struts and thin walls as the research objects,the relevant researches on size effect are systematically reviewed.Firstly,basing on the analysis of temperature field,this paper expounds the influence law of characteristic size on macroscopic heat accumulation and mesoscopic melt pool size,temperature gradient and cooling rate,which provides a basis for further “shape” and “performance” analysis.Secondly,defects and microstructure morphology are the main content of controlling “shape”.Therefore,the influences of characteristic size on three kinds of defects degree (microporosity,dimensional accuracy and roughness),as well as two kinds of microstructural characteristics (grain size and orientation) are summarized,and the forming mechanism is analyzed.Finally,the influences of different defects and microstructure characteristics on the mechanical properties are compared to provide reference for the control of “performance” for the lattice structure.The research work of some scholars also shows that reasonable process parameter selection for specific feature size can effectively improve the printing quality and mechanical properties of the feature structure,which provides a reference for the process design of cross-scale structures and gradient structures,and also sparks inspiration for the exploration of extreme lightweight.
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Structure design of deployable panels based on inflatable film
ZHANG Yuanxun, XU Liping, ZHANG Xiaomin, HUANG Gao
2024, 44 (2):  30-39.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0019
Abstract ( 56 )   PDF (11979KB) ( 34 )  
The deployable membrane structure has the advantages of light weight and high storage ratio.Through theoretical analysis and experimental verification,the mapping relationship between bending moment and internal pressure,radius and expansion degree of inflatable film tube was obtained.Furthermore,the thick plate problem of the two-stage deployable panels was solved with the method of "thick edge wrapping".The rotational lock,rotational slip lock and lap lock connection structures were designed.Three kinds of large-scale deployable panels structures,namely two-stage deployable rectangular panels,circular panels and shutter-shaped rectangular panels,were proposed,and the modal simulation of the deployable state was carried out to compare the modal shapes.This paper can provide a reference for large scale inflatable structure.
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Design and analysis of radiating rib space deployable antenna mechanism
TIAN Dake, SONG Yuqun, JIN Lu, GAO Haiming, LIU Rongqiang, ZHAO Bingfeng
2024, 44 (2):  40-50.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0020
Abstract ( 20 )   PDF (9457KB) ( 16 )  
The deployable antenna mechanism is a key component of the mesh deployable antenna,which has a significant influence on the stability and stiffness of the structure after deployment.A new configuration of radiating rib space deployable antenna mechanism was designed to address the development trend of large scale,high storage rate,and high accuracy of space deployable antennas.Firstly,the overall structural design of the antenna was designed,and a three-dimensional model of the structure was established based on the dimensional calculation of the structural composition.Then,the kinematic simulation study of the mechanism was carried out by using numerical simulation software,and the variation law of the motion was analyzed.Finally,a finite element model was established,and the structural modal analysis was carried out.The results show that the proposed mechanism can realize the motion change from folded state to deployed state,and that the mechanism has good synchronization during the deployment process without interference between the components,which verifies the correctness and feasibility of the structural scheme and principle.The research results can provide a reference for research on the basic theory of a deployable antenna mechanism and related engineering applications.
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An adjustment method for deployable mesh antenna based on multi neural network
SU Guanlong, MA Xiaofei, FAN Yesen, ZHENG Shikun, LI Yang, LI Tuanjie, LI Huanxiao, LIN Kunyang
2024, 44 (2):  51-58.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0021
Abstract ( 11 )   PDF (3611KB) ( 8 )  
To improve the surface accuracy of the deployable mesh antenna and reduce profile adjustment,a surface adjustment method based on multiple neural networks was proposed.By analyzing the correlation and coupling mechanism of the new tension mesh antenna surface,an adjustment strategy was proposed for the first time.Taking a 10m mesh antenna as an example,the root mean square value of the surface was reduced from 5.4×10-3m to 1.1×10-3m,which verifies the effectiveness of this method.
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Thermal deformation suppression of parabolic solid antenna based on the segmentation method
LOU Chungang, LI HaoPAN Diankun
2024, 44 (2):  59-67.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0022
Abstract ( 13 )   PDF (7698KB) ( 8 )  
To meet the demands of large-aperture,high surface accuracy of deployable antennas for high-resolution microwave remote sensing spacecraft in the future,a novel method called segmented method was proposed,which can effectively reduce the surface error caused by thermal deformation of the solid partial feed antenna in orbit.A parabolic solid partial feed antenna with a 5m aperture was employed,and then the effect of thermal deformation on the electrical performance of the antenna,especially the main beam efficiency,was analyzed with the finite element method.The influence of the support method with six points on the thermal deformation of the continuous solid surface antenna was investigated.Under the uniform temperature field with a difference of 200℃,the surface errors of cells with different shapes were analyzed,and then a hexagon shape was adopted as a segmented cell and the relationship between the surface error and the size was studied.The surface error and electrical performance of the antenna after being segmented by single cells with different sizes and arrangements were investigated,the effect of the splits among the segmented cells on the electrical performance of the antenna was verified,and the final segmented configuration was determined.The results show that the surface error decreases from 500μm to 5μm and the main beam efficiency decreases from 6.72% to 1.77% through the final segmented configuration.
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Modal testing and model updating of space deployable antenna
REN Zhiwei, DU Jingli, WANG Feijie
2024, 44 (2):  68-73.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0023
Abstract ( 15 )   PDF (3531KB) ( 9 )  
In order to accurately predict the mechanical properties of the structure and accurately approximate the test results of the simulation,the finite element model must be corrected.In this paper,the modal test of the 3m deployable antenna prototype was carried out,and the natural frequencies and vibration model shapes of the structure were obtained under the free state of the prototype.In view of the characteristics of the flexible and complex structure modal parameters of the deployable antenna,which are difficult to identify and there are many parameters to be corrected,the modified parameters were selected in a targeted manner.The finite element model was corrected by using the model correction method based on the sensitivity type of design parameters,the error between the prototype and the simulated natural frequency and mode shape was reduced,a modal test process and a model correction method containing the cable-net structure were obtained.
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Efficient cache replacement framework based on access hotness for spacecraft processors
GAO Xin, NIAN Jiawei, LIU Hongjin, YANG Mengfei
2024, 44 (2):  74-88.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0024
Abstract ( 30 )   PDF (4691KB) ( 13 )  
A notable portion of cachelines in real-world workloads exhibits inner non-uniform access behaviors.However,modern cache management rarely considers this fine-grained feature,which impacts the effective cache capacity of contemporary high-performance spacecraft processors.To harness these nonuniform access behaviors,an efficient cache replacement framework featuring an auxiliary cache specifically designed to retain evicted hot data was proposed.This framework reconstructs the cache replacement policy,facilitating data migration between the main cache and the auxiliary cache.Unlike traditional cacheline-granularity policies,the approach excels at identifying and evicting infrequently used data,thereby optimizing cache utilization.The evaluation shows impressive performance improvement,especially on workloads with irregular access patterns.Benefiting from fine granularity,the proposal achieves superior storage efficiency compared with commonly used cache management schemes,providing a potential optimization opportunity for modern resource-constrained processors,such as spacecraft processors.Furthermore,the framework complements existing modern cache replacement policies and can be seamlessly integrated with minimal modifications,enhancing their overall efficacy.
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Calculation and compensation of self-gravity for gravitational reference sensor based on finite element method
GAO Zhiyong, WANG Shang, WANG Zhi
2024, 44 (2):  89-97.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0025
Abstract ( 18 )   PDF (7613KB) ( 8 )  
Spaceborne gravitational wave detection Tai-ji Project is going to measure the distance change of two test mass blocks with gravitational reference sensors through laser interference to retrieve the physical information of gravitational waves.The total residual acceleration noise of the test mass should be below 3×10-15m·s-2/Hz1/2 along sensitive axis at 0.1mHz.The self-gravity noise arising from spacecraft payloads attraction,thermal distortions and mass fluctuation is one of the most significant noises.The self-gravity induced acceleration at test mass location along sensitive axis should be below 1×10-10m/s2,and the self-gravity induced gradient of the acceleration field at test mass location along sensitive axis should be below 5×10-8s-2.In order to calculate the accelerations and gradients of the acceleration field,aiming at the geometry irregularity of test mass and attraction sources,a custom programme was coded.The linear accelerations,angular accelerations and gradients of the acceleration field were calculated.In addition,to minimize the calculation time,a “quasi adaptive” method for meshing was proposed.The balance mass was designed to compensate self-gravity.The results show that the self-gravity induced acceleration at test mass location along sensitive axis is 9.2377×10-12m/s2,and that the self-gravity induced gradient of the acceleration field at test mass location along sensitive axis is -2.5691×10-8s-2,which meet the design requirement.This research will provide reference and guidance for the design and compensation of spacecraft and gravitational reference sensors.
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Ability modeling for spacecraft control system based on partial least square structural equation model approach
HUANG Yuan, WEI Chunling, YAN Han, HAO Renjian
2024, 44 (2):  98-108.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0026
Abstract ( 11 )   PDF (3037KB) ( 8 )  
For improving the mission completion quality,the spacecraft need to adjust their capabilities according to the task and environment reasonably.The ability model of the spacecraft control system,by which the high-level ability value can be described quantitatively,is the theoretical basis for the above adjustment.This paper proposed an ability modeling method through the partial least square structural equation model(PLS-SEM)for the spacecraft control system to achieve quantitative descriptions of abstract abilities including control ability and observation ability.Firstly,according to the structural elements of the closed-loop control system,we designed and generated the type of indicators modeling data samples.Furthermore,the capability variable system under the SEM framework was designed and constructed.The key parameters,such as path coefficients,outer loading and outer weights,were determined by the PLS algorithm.Then the structural and measurement equations of the obtained PLS-SEM ability model were evaluated separately.Finally,according to the spacecraft PLSSEM ability model,the various types of abilities of the control system were quantitatively described and analyzed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed modeling method.
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An improved algorithm based on circular correlation for fast acquisition of spread spectrum signals
LIU Jie, ZHANG Chaojie, JIN Xiaojun, JIN Zhonghe
2024, 44 (2):  109-117.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0027
Abstract ( 23 )   PDF (4102KB) ( 18 )  
Aiming at the problem of spread spectrum signal acquisition with long period pseudo-noise(PN)code under the condition of high Doppler frequency and low signal-to-noise ratio,an improved algorithm based on circular correlation for fast acquisition of spread spectrum signals was proposed.Since the algorithm used fast Fourier transform(FFT)to estimate the frequency offset of the results obtained by circular correlation and expanded the frequency sweep step of the traditional circular correlation method,the frequency sweep step was no longer limited by the tracking loop bandwidth.The theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the algorithm can correctly estimate the PN code phase and Doppler frequency under the signal-to-noise ratio of -34dB when the Doppler frequency is 500kHz.With the same sensitivity,the mean acquisition time of the proposed algorithm is shortened by about 47% in comparison to the traditional circular correlation algorithm,and about 88% in comparison to the FFT-based parallel frequency search algorithm.In addition,the FFT points used for frequency estimation only account for 1% of the circular correlation points.The algorithm is proved to be a straightforward logic-controlling solution,which can significantly increase the real-time performance of the satellite communication system with a high Doppler frequency,low signal-to-noise ratio,and long period PN code.
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Reliability verification test method of space flexible actuator
YE Tianyuan, LIU Xin, CUI Chengmin, ZHOU Yuanzi, ZONG Hong
2024, 44 (2):  118-124.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0028
Abstract ( 16 )   PDF (2539KB) ( 12 )  
In order to evaluate the reliability of the space flexible actuator in orbit,the reliability verification test method of the actuator was given according to the characteristics of complex in-orbit operating conditions,small sample size and long life.Firstly,on the basis of analyzing the structure composition and working principle of the actuator,the reliability characteristic quantity of the actuator was determined.Then,taking the life-type reliability test as the basic idea,aiming at the main failure mode of on-orbit fatigue fracture failure of flexible components,the fatigue test load spectrum design was proposed according to the load data of typical onorbit operating conditions,the accelerated fatigue life test of the flexible component was carried out using the load spectrum,and the reliability evaluation results of the actuator were given based on the fatigue life test results.Finally,taking a certain type of space flexible actuator as an example,the reliability test was carried out based on the accelerated fatigue test of the flexible component,and the reliability evaluation results of the actuator were obtained.The research results show that the reliability of the actuator meets the requirements of the index,and that the evaluation results conform to the engineering practice.The proposed reliability verification test method can provide an effective technical approach for the quantitative reliability evaluation of the space flexible actuator,and can provide a reference for the reliability verification of the spacecraft motion mechanism.
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Effects of lunar surface temperature and topography on outpost location selection
ZHANG Sibo, LIU Yang, WANG Shenquan, PENG Qibo, WANG Chao, YAO Wei
2024, 44 (2):  125-135.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0029
Abstract ( 41 )   PDF (12094KB) ( 22 )  
With unique geographical characteristics and potential water ice resources,the lunar polar regions become the preferred areas for future lunar scientific exploration and base construction.However,at the lunar polar regions,differences in solar illumination conditions,limits for the direct earth communication,large variation range of lunar surface temperature and steep terrains,pose great challenges to the site selection research.It is of great significance to quantitatively study the temperature and topography distribution of the lunar polar regions.A method for evaluating the relative habitable zone on the moon was developed by using the observations of the laser altimeter(LOLA)and radiometer(Diviner)on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter(LRO).Typical relative habitable zones were selected,taking the lunar south pole as the target.And the characteristics of the diurnal and seasonal variations of the surface temperature of these zones were analyzed.Moreover,the distributions of terrain slope,surface roughness and terrain height in these regions were compared.Region A(around Scott M)is located on the relative highlands of the lunar south pole(about 3 to 7km)with moderate slope(median value of 8°)and surface roughness(less than 2m).Region B(near de Gerlache)is the closest to the center of the south pole,with sun visibility up to 0.8,relative steep slope(median value of 12.4 °)and moderate surface roughness(less than 2m).Region C(around Amundsen)has the lowest terrain(about -1.8 to -0.5km),the minimum sun visibility(less than 0.6)and earth visibility(less than 0.5),and the gentlest topographic slope(median value of 5.4°),whereas approximate 26% areas possessed a surface roughness greater than 3m.In summer night,the temperatures of partial areas in region B and region A can be higher than 0℃ and -20℃,respectively,indicating relatively ideal environment for outpost sites in future lunar missions.
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Design method of outer baffle in GEO satellite camera
LIU Fei, ZHAO Yanbin, SONG Xiaozheng, LU Guoping, TANG Qijia, ZHANG Hongying
2024, 44 (2):  136-144.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0030
Abstract ( 16 )   PDF (7340KB) ( 16 )  
In view of the least sun avoidance angle of the camera,and the large baffle beyond the fairing cap,the algorithm of the least sun avoidance angle based on non-imaging duration was studied when the satellite avoids the sun by yaw attitude maneuver.Then,the outer baffle′s modeling equations based on three panels and the cylinder were proposed.It also offered optimization method of the panels′ upper edge.Kinds of scarfed outer baffle were designed in typical condition with the same effect of sun avoidance.After the outer baffles′ 3D modeling in Pro/ E and shadow analysis,the results show that the shadow ratio is 100% when solar elevation angle is at various degrees.It means that the bottom of inner baffle will not be shined.This verified the correctness of outer baffle′s modeling equations and the optimization method of the panels′ upper edge.The article achieved the effect of sun avoidance with 1/3 area of traditional cylinder outer baffle.
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Algorithm design and system application of HY-1 satellite observation mission planning
CHEN Wang, SHAO Qinglong, ZHOU Xiao, LIU Jinpu, LAN Youguo, YU Wei, HU Yuxin
2024, 44 (2):  145-153.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0031
Abstract ( 13 )   PDF (2828KB) ( 11 )  
Aiming at the observation mission planning of HY-1 satellite,a planning algorithm based on genetic strategy was proposed and implemented to solve the planning constraints and resource maximization problems in the context of practical scenario.Based on the practical planning issues of HY-1 satellite,a mathematical model was established for the mission planning constraints and optimization objectives,and the observation task constraints were innovatively divided into window constraints and combination constraints.The optimization objective function of multi-constraint task planning was designed,and the optimization problem was solved by using genetic mechanisms including crossover,mutation and population selection.Based on the practical observation demand data of HY-1 satellite,the validity and performance of the proposed algorithm were verified.The results show that this algorithm can provide observation plans that meet the constraints of satellite planning and that it gets better performance than other strategies in terms of observation time and observation demand coverage.The research results show that the genetic algorithm can realize the more complex multitype observation mission planning constraints,and the research results can provide reference for mission planning of remote sensing satellites with similar business characteristics to HY satellites.
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On-orbit radiometric calibration of JL-1 satellite based on the moon
HU Ke, DU Wenliang, XIE Yanhao, YANG Song, SHU Min, XU Tianyi, CAI Wei, WU Yunzhao
2024, 44 (2):  154-163.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0032
Abstract ( 14 )   PDF (5940KB) ( 7 )  
 In order to better apply the remote sensing data of JL-1 satellite,the onorbit absolute radiation calibration of JL-1 spectral satellite was studied by using the moon as the radiation source to improve the laboratory calibration coefficient.Considering the timeliness of the calibration coefficient,the observation data were grouped by time and then calibrated.ROLO model was used to calculate the lunar irradiance at the observation time of the satellite,the relationship between the values derived from ROLO model and the satellite observation was built,and the least squares fitting was performed to obtain two sets of scaling coefficients for 19 spectral bands.Finally,the calibration results were compared with the JL-1 site calibration and lunar observation data of GF-4 and SeaWiFS satellites.The results show that:①the lunar calibration results in this paper are stable,and the uncertainty of the linear fitting of the two sets of calibration coefficients is 1.72% and 1.24%,respectively;②in terms of the spectral shape,the lunar spectral curve is smooth after lunar calibration,and the spectral shape is consistent with the lunar radiation characteristics.Compared with the site calibration,the relative size of each band is greatly improved qualitatively;③on the absolute radiation value,the average relative error between the calibration result and the lunar irradiance derived by GF-4 satellite is 8.1%,and the average error between JL-1 and the two bands of SeaWiFS is 0.90% and 7.42%,respectively.This study shows that lunar calibration is an effective way for satellite on-orbit radiometric calibration and authenticity verification.
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Large aperture microwave-optical integrated space imaging technology
WANG Feiran, LIU Lei, REN Lanxu, DAI Feng
2024, 44 (2):  164-170.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0033
Abstract ( 14 )   PDF (4447KB) ( 8 )  
Aiming at low integration of traditional multiload remote sensing satellite systems, a kind of common structure large aperture microwave-optical integrated space imaging method was proposed.The Cassegrain load structure was designed to be shared by microwave-optical imaging systems.The received signal was split and imaged through the wavelength splitter.The main reflector structure of the load was a paraboloid composed of microwave antenna and multi optical reflectors.The optical primary mirror system was composed of discontinuous paraboloid with the distributed structure of Fizeau interference Golay6, and the imaging loads were spliced with modular design.The modular design was easy for the large aperture structures to be processed and assembled.Compared with the traditional multi-load satellite, the modular design is more integrated and the system more simplified.The simulation analysis of the integrated space load was carried out through Matlab and Zemax.The results show that the load meets the requirements of the minimum effective area of microwave imaging and the modulation transfer function(MTF)value of optical imaging.
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