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    Progress and prospect in planetary exploration of solar system
    YANG Mengfei, ZHENG Yanhong, NI Yanshuo, HUANG Xiaofeng, ZHANG Zhengfeng, XING Zhuoyi
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2023, 43 (5): 1-12.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2023.0063
    Abstract531)      PDF(pc) (10199KB)(714)      
    Planetary exploration is an important means of humans to understand the universe.With the continuous development of space technology,major space countries have carried out more than 100 planetary exploration activities in the solar system.Humans have realized the flyby,orbiting,lander,rover and sample return missions of solar system.Based on the implemented planetary exploration activities and upcoming missions,the main scientific issues and discoveries of planetary exploration were summarized.And the development tendency of planetary exploration was analyzed.According to the recent development plan of planetary exploration in China,a medium to longterm conceiving route and flagship mission have been proposed.It can provide support for the planning of future planetary exploration missions in China.
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    Progress and prospect of lunar resources exploitation and utilization
    YANG Mengfei, ZOU Zhigang, WANG Weihua, YAO Wei, WANG Qinggong
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2024, 44 (1): 1-10.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0001
    Abstract489)      PDF(pc) (4467KB)(651)      
    With the implementation of the Chang′E-5 mission in 2020,the three phases of China lunar exploration program,namely orbiting,landing and returning,have been completed.Next,the International Lunar Research Station(ILRS)will be established at the lunar south pole by 2030,and a lunar base will be planned later.It is a new era of exploitation and utilization of the Moon,in which a vast tasks should be completed.In this paper,we summarized some important progresses of investigation of lunar resources in the past,including lunar resource exploration,analysis of lunar volatiles,mineral extraction,and material construction by 3D printing of lunar regolith.Then,we proposed future tasks for the exploitation of the lunar resources.The main challenges of the Moon,such as the extreme lunar environment,unique properties of lunar regolith,and autonomous control of the process,were considered.The views in this paper can be referenced for future scientific researches and engineering tasks in the field.
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    LEO constellation configuration design method with constant trajectory of subsatellite points
    ZHANG Yasheng, JIA Lu, YU Jinlong, LIANG Shuang
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2023, 43 (3): 116-122.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2023.0044
    Abstract309)      PDF(pc) (5014KB)(364)      
    An analytical design method for the LEO constellation configuration with constant trajectory was provided,where all satellites share a common subsatellite trajectory and the trajectory is fixed.The constellation configuration was coded with two parameters,the regressor and the number of satellites.Firstly,based on the idea of average orbital elements,an analytical model of repeat ground track orbit design was established under the condition that the harmonic order of the Earth’s non-spherical perturbation band is J4.Secondly,according to the relative motion law of the satellite and Earth,the analytical formula satisfying the common trajectory condition was established.Finally,the constellation configuration design model of the LEO constant trajectory constellation was constructed by combining the concept of repeat ground track orbit design and common trajectory design.The ultimate simulation results show that the configuration design method meets the design expectation,which verifies the effectiveness of this configuration design method.The constellation configuration is characterized by simple form,easy maintenance,and wide coverage.It guarantees the consistency of orientation between the space system and ground system,which greatly reduces the complexity of satellite-ground system cooperation.
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    Research and prospect of scientific exploration for Jovian system
    ZOU Xin, PENG Jing, MIAO Yuanming
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2023, 43 (6): 1-10.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2023.0078
    Abstract306)      PDF(pc) (3340KB)(390)      
    In order to make a better plan for China′s scientific exploration for Jovian system,the development status of foreign Jovian system exploration missions were investigated and analyzed.Among the nine space missions that explored Jupiter and its satellites so far,seven are flyby missions.The other two are Galileo and Juno particularly for Jupiter.The Scientific goals,payloads configuration and exploration results were extracted and generalized.The mission characteristics and enlightenment of scientific exploration for Jovian system were obtained.Finally,on the basis of the above analysis and pending problems,the primary mission layout and prospect of scientific exploration for Jovian system in China were proposed.
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    Opportunities and challenges of longdistance high-capacity continuous wireless power transmission
    LI Ming, DONG Shiwei, SHI Dele
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2023, 43 (3): 1-13.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2023.0033
    Abstract304)      PDF(pc) (1058KB)(408)      
    Long-distance high-capacity continuous wireless power transmission(WPT)is one of the candidate routes to realize space-based solar power exploitation and carbon neutrality.Firstly,the application demands and development opportunities were introduced with specific technical requirements for practical applications of long-distance high-capacity continuous WPT.Secondly,the international state-of-the-art research progress was reported.Then technical challenges were discussed,with respect to development trend and application needs.And toward these challenges,development suggestions were proposed.
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    Development of advanced electric propulsion technology for cislunar and deep space exploration
    WU Chenchen, GENG Hai, WANG Zitong, LI Detian
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2023, 43 (5): 13-23.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2023.0064
    Abstract293)      PDF(pc) (7207KB)(439)      
    Space electric propulsion is the key technology of cislunar and deep space exploration.Space electric propulsion technology,one of the key technology of cislunar and deep space exploration,was focused on.The technical connotation of space electric propulsion and its application status in China was introduced,and the typical international cislunar and deep space exploration missions based on electric propulsion was analyzed from the dimensions of mission characteristics,electric propulsion configuration,and application benefits.Aiming at the future development needs of China’s deep space exploration,the optimization application stratrgies of electric propulsion were introduced for five typical scenarios: lunar exploration,asteroid exploration,human Mars exploration,solar system boundary exploration and cislunar space scientific exploration,and the key technical systems and development priorities of advanced electric propulsion for deep space exploration were sorted out.Finally,according to the development idea of “one medium,one super,one micro”,suggestions on space electric propulsion technology development were given,which provide a reference for a wider range of applications of space electric propulsion in the field of cislunar and deep space exploration.
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    Current status and prospect of multisource remote sensing data in battlefield environment intelligent situational awareness
    SHAO Zhenfeng, DANG Chaoya, ZHANG Hongping, WU Changzhi, QI Xiaofei, HUANG Jun
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2024, 44 (1): 11-22.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0002
    Abstract289)      PDF(pc) (4641KB)(372)      
     In the face of the rapid change of complex battlefield environment information,grasping the situational awareness of complex battlefield environment in a timely,comprehensive and accurate manner is the prerequisite for winning the information war in the future.In order to explore the development direction of multi-source remote sensing data in battlefield environment situational awareness,on the basis of extensive investigation of remote sensing requirements for battlefield environment situational awareness,we firstly expounded the concept and connotation of battlefield environment situational awareness,then gave an overview of multi-source remote sensing data processing and battlefield situational awareness applications.Next,we analyzed the challenges,progress and development trend of remote sensing in battlefield environment situational awareness.In general,remote sensing provides a variety of observation data for battlefield environment situational awareness,and the combination of remote sensing and artificial intelligence algorithm can provide a variety of applications for military battlefield environment situational awareness and offer data assistance to commanders for decision-making.However,there are still a lot of challenges to be solved.Based on the analysis of the current achievements and challenges,we put forward the prospect of remote sensing in the battlefield environment situational awareness,and pointed out that the interpretability of deep learning based on remote sensing and the intelligent battlefield are the difficulties to break through the development of remote sensing in the battlefield environment situational awareness.
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    Key technologies and progress of inertial sensors for space gravitational wave detection
    WU Shufan, ZHANG Qianyun, LIU Meilin, SHEN Qiang
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2023, 43 (4): 1-12.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2023.0048
    Abstract278)      PDF(pc) (6507KB)(326)      
    Space inertial sensor is one of the key science payloads in space gravitational wave detection mission,aiming to detect infinitesimal change in gravitational wave.The research progress,detection principle and working mechanism of the inertial sensor were introduced and discussed to illustrate its technical challenges.The key technologies of the inertial sensor design were illustrated in three aspects:capacitance displacement sensing,electrostatic feedback control and ground evaluation.Then,the development and research status of inertial sensors worldwide were reviewed and summarized.It could be seen that the residual acceleration noise was the key indicator of the inertial sensor.It reached 3×10-15m/(s2·Hz1/2) orders of magnitude abroad.There are three orders of magnitude deficit between domestic and abroad.Thus,the study on high precision space inertial sensor has great strategic and scientific significance.To meet the needs of inertial sensors in China's future space gravitational wave detection missions,the research can focus on inertial sensor control system strategy,AC actuator parameter optimization,multi-degree-of-freedom decoupling control technology,and low noise technology.
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    Software defined TT&C system architecture and key technology
    LI Chao, JIAO Yiwen, FU Shiyuan, WU Tao
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2023, 43 (3): 14-24.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2023.0034
    Abstract266)      PDF(pc) (6999KB)(345)      
    In order to meet the rapidly changing needs of civil and commercial aerospace TT&C and the explosive growth of TT&C tasks caused by the rapid development of small satellites and large constellations,software-defined technology,which is considered a revolutionary technology that changes the rules of the game,was introduced from the internet industry into aerospace TT&C systems,a software-defined aerospace TT&C system architecture was proposed,and a new round of technological innovation in the TT&C system was realized.Firstly,the architecture and existing problems of the traditional TT&C system were analyzed,and then the technical characteristics of the software-defined aerospace TT&C system were discussed,such as hierarchical design standards,open application interfaces,centralized system control,and flexible reorganization of basic resources.Then,the advantages of the architecture and four key technologies including standard interfaces and specifications,software-defined RF front-end,software-defined channel and softwaredefined baseband were analyzed,and the development of software-defined TT&C system was prospected.The research results show that compared with the traditional TT&C system,the software-defined aerospace TT&C system architecture can better meet the needs for TT&C resources of the growing aerospace industry.
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    LEO satellite constellation design based on QoS
    DAI Cuiqin, QIN Jiepeng, XU Tao, TANG Hong
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2023, 43 (3): 105-115.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2023.0043
    Abstract264)      PDF(pc) (7474KB)(228)      
    The design of LEO(low earth orbit)satellite constellation is the prerequisite and key to deploy LEO satellite network.However,the uneven distribution of ground users and the unreasonable allocation of satellite resources pose a major challenge to the service quality of satellite networks.To solve the above problems,a method of LEO satellite constellation based on QoS(quality of service) was proposed by establishing a QoS metrics system.Firstly,the LEO satellite network model and constellation coverage model were established,and the metric of constellation invulnerability was defined via the building criteria of inter satellite link.Secondly,the resource matching between satellite constellation and target area users was analyzed by establishing user links and defining user matching degree.Following that,the LEO constellation design problem was established to maximize the costeffectiveness ratio under the constraints of QoS metrics.The defined QoS metrics included signal-to-noise ratio,bit error rate,invulnerability,constellation coverage rate and user matching degree.In addition,the orbital parameters of the designed LEO satellite constellation were obtained through the genetic tabu intelligent algorithm.The simulation results show that the proposed LEO satellite constellation design scheme can maximize the constellation cost-effectiveness ratio while meeting the specified QoS constraints.
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    Internal anti-collision safety analysis of LEO large-scale satellite constellation
    YUN Chaoming, HU Min, RUAN Yongjing, XUE Wen
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2023, 43 (5): 35-45.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2023.0066
    Abstract240)      PDF(pc) (6196KB)(299)      
    Aiming at the collision safety of large-scale constellation satellites in low Earth orbit(LEO),the maximum drift of constellation configuration was studied.Firstly,the minimum phase difference of satellite orbit plane was calculated based on the spherical triangle theory.Secondly,the constellation configuration parameters were studied by using the control variable method.The influence of configuration parameters on the minimum phase difference of constellation satellites was analyzed,and the relationship between the right ascension drift and the minimum phase difference was analyzed.A cooperative design method of constellation configuration parameters based on the minimum phase difference was proposed.Then,based on the relative phase analysis method,the function relationship between the right ascension drift and the phase drift with time was established.Finally,the first phase of Starlink constellation was taken as a reference object to verify the rationality of the collaborative design method of configuration parameters.
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    Simulation and analysis of thermal state for micronano satellite
    YAN Xinqing, LI Yaqi, ZHANG Chenxi, HUANGFU Zhongmin, ZHANG Ning, LIU Xuemei
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2023, 43 (3): 35-42.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2023.0036
    Abstract232)      PDF(pc) (4863KB)(298)      
    The satellite thermal control system achieves the purpose of controlling the temperature level and temperature stability of the star by regulating the process of heat collection,transfer and emission on the satellite.It is very important to analyze the on-orbit thermal state of the satellite and to adjust and evaluate the thermal control measures based on the analysis results.Aiming at the key problems of thermal state analysis of low-orbit micro-nano satellites,the calculation method of the extra-space heat flow experienced by the satellites in orbit was given.On this basis,the temperature influencing factors and heat transfer characteristics were considered,and the instantaneous temperature calculation model of the satellite shell,radiator,internal environment,and internal and external stand-alone units were established.Taking an LEO(low earth orbit)micro-nano satellite as an example,the simulation calculation was carried out,and the results were analyzed and discussed,which provides a fast and simple analysis method for further indepth study of the thermal control design of the satellite.
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    A review of motion control methods of macro/micro space manipulator systems
    YIN Wang, WANG Xiang, WANG Wei, LIU Dongyu
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2023, 43 (4): 13-23.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2023.0049
    Abstract223)      PDF(pc) (5711KB)(319)      
    A single manipulator can hardly meet the growing demand for space missions.In order to improve the comprehensive performance of the manipulator system,such as rapid response,high precision and large load,several countries begin to develop macro-micro manipulator systems.The development status of macro-micro manipulators on the International Space Station and Chinese Space Station was reviewed,and the motion control methods were summarized from separated time independent control mode and coordinate control mode.When the macro-micro manipulator adopts the mode of time-separating and independent control,it can be equivalent to a flexible base manipulator system.The control algorithms of flexible structure mounted manipulator systems were researched from the perspectives of optimal reaction control,active damping control and end-point trajectory tracking control.The research provides reference for on-orbit operation of China′s space manipulator.Finally,the future research prospect of dynamic modeling and motion control of space macromicro manipulator were looked into.
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    System design and key technologies of Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Inventory Satellite
    CAO Haiyi, ZHANG Xinwei, HUANG Jin, HE Tao, MAO Yilan, LU Qingrong
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2023, 43 (6): 112-124.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2023.0090
    Abstract222)      PDF(pc) (7752KB)(304)      
    The Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Inventory Satellite(TECIS),nicknamed “Goumang” ,is supported by the China National Civil Space Infrastructure Program.It focuses on evaluating the carbon sink of forests,and is equipped with 4 payloads including Carbon Sinks and Aerosol LIDAR(CASAL),Directional Multi-Spectral Camera(DMC),Fluorescence Spectral Imager(FSI)and Directional Polarization Camera(DPC).Adopting diversified remote sensing of lidar,multi-direction,multi-spectrum,hyper-spectrum and polarization,aboveground biomass(AGB),solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence(SIF)and aerosol content can be measured quantitatively by the combination of active and passive remote sensing.Retrieval products of TECIS are published after calibration and validation.The precision of forest mean height is better than 1.5m where ground slope is less than 5°.AGB products in regional scale are inspected to be better than 85%.TECIS will provide remote sensing service in investigating the carbon sink,ecological conditions and resources,and evaluating national major ecological projects.It will play a vital role in the carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals of China.
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    3D printing densification of lunar regolith simulant
    LIU Yiwei, ZHANG Xian, WANG Chao, SONG Jian, CHEN Xiong, Yao Wei
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2023, 43 (6): 66-73.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2023.0085
    Abstract197)      PDF(pc) (7898KB)(419)      
    The insitu 3D printing of lunar regolith(additive manufacturing)can realize the in-situ construction of the lunar base and the insitu manufacturing of key components,and can greatly reduce the cost and risk of the lunar exploration mission.A selective laser melting lunar regolith simulant experiment system was built to carry out single-track molding experiments to explore the effect of the first powder layer thickness on the densification of the sample,while the width and depth of each track were measured.The results show that the width of the single-track decreases with increasing scanning speed until the width is almost constant.At the same laser power,the single-track depth becomes deeper as the first powder layer thickness increases.The singletrack depth increases and then decreases with the increase in scanning speed.The density of a single-track can reach 2.5g/cm3,and the relative density is 86%.As the scanning speed increases,the density of single-track for different layer thicknesses is stabilized at 1.7g/cm3.When the first layer of powder is thinner,the density of single-track is also slightly higher than other layer thicknesses.
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    Review of space target positioning algorithms based on space-based optical detection
    LI Yao, CHEN Xin, RAO Peng
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2024, 44 (2): 1-15.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0017
    Abstract196)      PDF(pc) (6075KB)(436)      
    In recent years,the field of space target localization has developed rapidly by integrating detection technologies such as sensor-network collaboration and multi-mode fusion.Positioning methods based on space-based optical detection are widely used in civil and national defense fields with their unique advantages of good concealment and high measurement accuracy.In order to analyze the localization methods suitable for different types of spatial targets in different scenarios,small space target positioning methods based on space-based optical detection were reviewed.Firstly,the development of space-based optical detection technology,the classification and characteristics of space targets,and the concept of space target localization were introduced.Secondly,the positioning methods based on single satellite or multi-satellites suitable for small and weak spatial targets were analyzed.The joint positioning of heterogeneous sensors proposed in recent years was explained.Besides,the error analysis model of spatial target positioning was established according to the imaging process.The proportion of factors influencing positioning accuracy was analyzed.Finally,the summary and outlook were made based on the existing problems.
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    Probability estimation and precision analysis of constellation distribution with analytical method
    LIU Huiliang, SUN Qian, CHU Yao, PENG Fei, JIANG Fan, LYU Hongjian, CAI Yaxing, WANG Ping
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2023, 43 (5): 56-64.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2023.0068
    Abstract195)      PDF(pc) (6430KB)(250)      
    With the scale of global loworbit constellations increasing,it is difficult for the conventional timedomain statistical method based on orbit extrapolation to meet the requirement of rapid probabilistic analysis of spatial distribution.Aiming at high efficiency and high precision analysis,a universal analytical expression of satellite constellation probability distribution was proposed and derived.The expectation of satellite in the field of view(FOV) of earth terminal was introduced for the first time.The applicability of the analytical algorithm for largescale constellation with different configurations was systematically verified.By comparing the results with the timedomain statistical method based on orbit extrapolation,the calculation accuracy was discussed.When the cell radius of FOV is equal to 10°,the error is less than 3.1%;when the cell radius is decreased to 2°,the error is less than 0.1%.In addition,the calculation accuracy of hybrid configuration constellation scenario under different latitudes was analyzed,which provides a theoretical foundation and efficient analytical method for analyzing the distribution of satellite constellation globally.
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    Design and implementation of important data protection for the Zhurong Mars rover
    LAN Tian, ZHU Ma, PENG Song, CHEN Baichao, JIA Yang
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2023, 43 (3): 63-72.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2023.0039
    Abstract193)      PDF(pc) (3428KB)(227)      
    There is very limited ground support on the Martian surface,so the Zhurong rover needs to independently realize reliable survival and efficient exploration,and important data protection is a necessary condition for the autonomous capability.Due to energy constraints,only a small amount of equipment in the rover is in longterm operation,and the distributed important data protection scheme based on the onboard information network cannot be adopted.To solve this problem,an important data protection architecture that combines distributed and centralized data protection was proposed.The system management unit(SMU)centrally stored important data and provided distributed important data services for other devices.To realize the time recovery after reset or switch,an ondevice time protection method based on multiple backup was proposed,which realized the ondevice time protection with low consumption and high reliability.To protect more timed commands in limited space,an important data protection method combining private storage area and public storage area was proposed,which effectively improves the utilization rate of storage space.Proposed important data protection scheme provides reliable business continuity guarantee for the Zhurong Mars rover under the double constraints of limited ground support and limited energy,which can provide a reference for the design of subsequent deep space probes.
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    Autonomous integrity monitoring of integrated micro-inertial navigation system
    MENG Fanchen, SONG Jianmin, XING Chaoyang, WANG Wei
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2024, 44 (1): 34-43.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0004
    Abstract192)      PDF(pc) (10483KB)(314)      
    Aiming at the problem of future multi-domain high-intensity operations,such as strong confrontation,multi-platform,miniaturization and clustering,a high-density integrated micro-inertial navigation autonomous integrity monitoring algorithm was proposed,which relys on the optimal estimation theory.It analyzes the information sources of measurement errors that may appear in the micro-inertial navigation system,performs pre-check selection by optimizing the number of subsets,and uses Newton′s identity to optimize the engineering computational complexity to achieve the purpose of fault detection and elimination.Compared with the traditional MHSS algorithm,the computational complexity in micro-system could be greatly reduced,small-error and multi-error fault observations could be effectively detected simultaneously,which improves integrity and robustness of high-density integrated micro-inertial guidance and navigation systems.
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    Research on distributed energy system of lunar surface research station
    YUAN Yong, ZHAO Chen, CAO Yan, LIU Zhiqiang, HU Zhenyu
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2023, 43 (6): 32-42.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2023.0081
    Abstract191)      PDF(pc) (3965KB)(243)      
    The lunar surface research station is an exploration cluster,which is composed of several exploration units,including lunar surface command and control center,local / lunar to earth communication system,energy system and various exploration units.The energy system is an important part of the lunar research station.In order to efficiently configure,dispatch and operate the energy system,a distributed energy system concept was proposed.Photovoltaic power is mainly used to provide energy during the day,and nuclear power is used at night.The distributed energy system was studied.The power generation capacity,electricity demand,and payload power-using characteristics of each exploration units were fully analyzed.The architecture of lunar power grid was compared and analyzed,and the scheme of star shaped distributed energy system was selected.The concept of 10kW level long-term power supply was proposed,and the system composition was designed.The key technologies and construction methods of the energy system of lunar research station were analyzed,which can be used for the lunar surface research station in the future.
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