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    25 February 2024, Volume 44 Issue 1 Previous Issue   
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    Progress and prospect of lunar resources exploitation and utilization
    YANG Mengfei, ZOU Zhigang, WANG Weihua, YAO Wei, WANG Qinggong
    2024, 44 (1):  1-10.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0001
    Abstract ( 489 )   PDF (4467KB) ( 649 )   Save
    With the implementation of the Chang′E-5 mission in 2020,the three phases of China lunar exploration program,namely orbiting,landing and returning,have been completed.Next,the International Lunar Research Station(ILRS)will be established at the lunar south pole by 2030,and a lunar base will be planned later.It is a new era of exploitation and utilization of the Moon,in which a vast tasks should be completed.In this paper,we summarized some important progresses of investigation of lunar resources in the past,including lunar resource exploration,analysis of lunar volatiles,mineral extraction,and material construction by 3D printing of lunar regolith.Then,we proposed future tasks for the exploitation of the lunar resources.The main challenges of the Moon,such as the extreme lunar environment,unique properties of lunar regolith,and autonomous control of the process,were considered.The views in this paper can be referenced for future scientific researches and engineering tasks in the field.
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    Current status and prospect of multisource remote sensing data in battlefield environment intelligent situational awareness
    SHAO Zhenfeng, DANG Chaoya, ZHANG Hongping, WU Changzhi, QI Xiaofei, HUANG Jun
    2024, 44 (1):  11-22.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0002
    Abstract ( 289 )   PDF (4641KB) ( 372 )   Save
     In the face of the rapid change of complex battlefield environment information,grasping the situational awareness of complex battlefield environment in a timely,comprehensive and accurate manner is the prerequisite for winning the information war in the future.In order to explore the development direction of multi-source remote sensing data in battlefield environment situational awareness,on the basis of extensive investigation of remote sensing requirements for battlefield environment situational awareness,we firstly expounded the concept and connotation of battlefield environment situational awareness,then gave an overview of multi-source remote sensing data processing and battlefield situational awareness applications.Next,we analyzed the challenges,progress and development trend of remote sensing in battlefield environment situational awareness.In general,remote sensing provides a variety of observation data for battlefield environment situational awareness,and the combination of remote sensing and artificial intelligence algorithm can provide a variety of applications for military battlefield environment situational awareness and offer data assistance to commanders for decision-making.However,there are still a lot of challenges to be solved.Based on the analysis of the current achievements and challenges,we put forward the prospect of remote sensing in the battlefield environment situational awareness,and pointed out that the interpretability of deep learning based on remote sensing and the intelligent battlefield are the difficulties to break through the development of remote sensing in the battlefield environment situational awareness.
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    Research progress of transcritical carbon dioxide heat pumps in space applications
    NIU Zitian, FU Zhendong, MIAO Jianyin, YANG Qi, WU Qi, YANG Le
    2024, 44 (1):  23-33.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0003
    Abstract ( 134 )   PDF (3407KB) ( 92 )   Save
    As China′s deep space exploration endeavors advance,establishing lunar bases emerges as a predominant trend in its human spaceflight activities.Employing transcritical CO2 heat pumps as integral components of base thermal control systems presents a viable solution for attaining efficient heat dissipation,offering potential reductions in both radiator area and thermal control system weight.The merits of transcritical CO2 heat pumps in space applications were examined,encompassing aspects such as enhanced radiator heat dissipation efficiency,elevated performance coefficients of heat pump systems(COP),and the concomitant reduction of compressor dimensions.Concurrently,the challenges associated with implementing transcritical CO2 heat pumps in space applications were delineated,including the inadequacy of extant thermodynamic models in catering to the demands of space applications and the suboptimal efficiency of oil-gas separation in low or microgravity environments for heat pumps.Finally,in light of these challenges,prospective research priorities were put forth to facilitate the adoption of transcritical CO2 heat pumps in space applications.
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    Autonomous integrity monitoring of integrated micro-inertial navigation system
    MENG Fanchen, SONG Jianmin, XING Chaoyang, WANG Wei
    2024, 44 (1):  34-43.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0004
    Abstract ( 192 )   PDF (10483KB) ( 314 )   Save
    Aiming at the problem of future multi-domain high-intensity operations,such as strong confrontation,multi-platform,miniaturization and clustering,a high-density integrated micro-inertial navigation autonomous integrity monitoring algorithm was proposed,which relys on the optimal estimation theory.It analyzes the information sources of measurement errors that may appear in the micro-inertial navigation system,performs pre-check selection by optimizing the number of subsets,and uses Newton′s identity to optimize the engineering computational complexity to achieve the purpose of fault detection and elimination.Compared with the traditional MHSS algorithm,the computational complexity in micro-system could be greatly reduced,small-error and multi-error fault observations could be effectively detected simultaneously,which improves integrity and robustness of high-density integrated micro-inertial guidance and navigation systems.
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    Inversion method of Martian atmospheric density and wind velocity based on entry sphere
    HAN Bi, LI Xiao, QI Zheng
    2024, 44 (1):  44-53.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0005
    Abstract ( 107 )   PDF (1596KB) ( 96 )   Save
     A method for reconstructing Martian atmospheric density and wind velocity based on an entry sphere was proposed for the disadvantage of current detection methods.The sphere carries an accelerometer and a gyroscope to measure the drag acceleration and attitude.The wind velocity and density were decoupled based on the drag direction to solve the wind velocity independently,and the density was solved based on the high-precision wind velocity.The inversion algorithm error was analyzed through theoretical analysis and numerical simulation.The results show that the method can estimate the density and wind velocity of the middle and lower atmosphere effectively.The accuracy level of the transverse wind velocity and the density are less than 8% and 7%,respectively,below the height of 80km.
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    Thermospheric density determination and empirical model correction based on TLE data
    ZHANG Zhongtao, ZHANG Yakun, WANG Bin
    2024, 44 (1):  54-64.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0006
    Abstract ( 117 )   PDF (13519KB) ( 134 )   Save
     The thermosphere density model used for spacecraft orbit prediction generally has an error of about 30%,which affects the precise orbit determination and load control of LEO satellites.Based on the relationship between the change of horizontal motion of the low-orbit spacecraft and the atmospheric density,the TLE data of the GRACE(gravity recovery and climate experiment)satellite were used to invert the atmospheric density along the orbit in 2003 and 2007.After concluding the cause of the error in the relational analysis,the lognormal distribution was used to fit the density ratios.By analyzing the influence of solar radiation and geomagnetic index on atmospheric density changes,a correction and forecasting method of thermospheric density model based on space environment index was proposed.This method was used to correct the calculated density of the MSIS86 model in 2003,2004,2007 and 2008,the average relative error of the model was reduced from 33.33%~59.62% to 11.55%~15.13%,and the improvement in low solar activity years is 1.5~2 times of high solar activity years.The forecast correction was carried out on the empirical model results in 2009,which reduced the forecast error by 3649% and improved the model accuracy.
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    Research and modeling analysis of joint resistant torque hysteresis characteristics of lower limbs in extravehicular spacesuit
    LI Zhaoyang, DAI Yuehong, WANG Junyao
    2024, 44 (1):  65-74.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0007
    Abstract ( 91 )   PDF (4687KB) ( 75 )   Save
     The joint resistant torque of extravehicular spacesuit is an important index to evaluate the ergonomic performance of spacesuit and to plan astronauts′ extravehicular mission.In order to study the hysteresis characteristics of spacesuits′ joint resistant torque,firstly,the causes of the joint resistant torque were summarized,and the hysteresis relationship between the joint resistant torque and the motion angle of lower limbs was obtained.Secondly,the Jiles-Atherton model was adopted to describe the hysteresis characteristics of the joint resistant torque.Meanwhile,based on the actual joint resistant torque data,the SA-PSO(simulated annealing-particle swarm optimization)algorithm was proposed to identify the Jiles-Atherton model parameters.Finally,compared with the modified particle swarm optimization algorithm,the convergence rate of the designed SA-PSO algorithm was improved by 15.58% and 10.91%,the computational accuracy was improved by 29.31% and 11.77%,and the prediction errors of the unknown joint resistant torque were reduced by 10.89%/25.73% and 0.96%/22.2%,respectively,which verified the effectiveness of the designed algorithm.In addition,an error compensation function was designed according to the characteristics of modeling errors,and the identified Jiles-Atherton model further reduced the prediction errors by 46.49%/10.95% after error compensation.The calculated model can serve as a theoretical basis for the subsequent research on joint-assisted technology of extravehicular spacesuit.
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    Characteristics evaluation of satellite attitude disturbance caused by solar array drive assembly
    SONG Huixin, YAN Yehui, LI Kui
    2024, 44 (1):  75-82.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0008
    Abstract ( 182 )   PDF (4981KB) ( 285 )   Save
     In order to study the satellite attitude disturbance characteristics caused by solar array drive assembly(SADA),satellite attitude dynamics model considering the rotation of the solar arrays driven by SADA was established.An experiment scheme was designed to measure kinematic characteristics of SADA on-load.Through the experiment,kinematic characteristic curve of SADA on-load was obtained,and kinematic transfer function of SADA on-load was acquired by fitting experimental data.SADA kinematic model was substituted into satellite attitude dynamics model for simulation,therefrom getting satellite attitude control indicators when considering SADA motion.Based on kinematic characteristics and installation mode of SADA,a disturbance suppression strategy that interleaved the phases of the two SADA drive signals by 180° was designed,which was verified effective on disturbance suppression caused by SADA motion.The strategy has good engineering application value.
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    Construction method for space static beams of tracking and data relay satellite
    SHAN Changsheng, YU Daobin, QI Bin
    2024, 44 (1):  83-88.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0009
    Abstract ( 95 )   PDF (3181KB) ( 127 )   Save
    Through the wide-area coverage of the static beams in space,the time efficiency and multi-target capability of the tracking and data relay satellite measurement and control service will be effectively improved.A method for constructing the space static beams of the tracking and data relay satellite was proposed.The space static beams construction was realized by the phased array antenna of the tracking and data relay satellite and multiple ground computing units on the basis of the principle of digital beam forming.The simulation analysis of the spatial static beams configuration was carried out from the angles of different beam overlap and different space heights.The result shows that it is necessary to make a compromise between satellite beams coverage and the number of ground computing units,so as to maximize the performance advantages of the tracking and data relay satellite space static beams in engineering application.
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    Influence of electromagnetic coupling field on the structure and performance of spaceborne spring
    HUA Xiong, XIAO Yong, GAO Xiang, WANG Hui, QIU Dongsheng, WANG Yong
    2024, 44 (1):  89-98.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0010
    Abstract ( 69 )   PDF (7328KB) ( 47 )   Save
    Elastic elements are widely applied in the spaceborne deployable antenna.The consistency and stability of the mechanical properties of these elastic elements are crucial for the deployment and normal service of the antenna.The surface accuracy of the deployable antenna is ensured with the normal operation of these springs.The investigation is on the influence of electromagnetic coupling treatment on the structure and performance of the spaceborne spring.A combination of macroscopic and microscopic experiments was used to explore the influence of electromagnetic fields on the structure and performance of elastic components.With the analysis of the results and influence mechanism,this work provides a novel method to improve the consistency and stability of the spaceborne elastic components.The application of the electromagnetic coupling field was observed to improve the stiffness,hardness,creep resistance,and other mechanical properties of the spaceborne elastic element without any additional weight or structure punishment.The result reveals that stiffness is enhanced by 2.11% and the distribution variance is decreased by an order of magnitude.Microhardness of the spring is increased by 8.42%,while the variance distribution is decreased by 40.79%.A 45.76% creep resistance improvement is achieved by the application.The improvement of creep resistance is beneficial to the long-term service of the spring.The coupling field improves the uniformity of spring stiffness and hardness distribution and alleviates the individual differences among different springs,which has a positive effect on hundreds of elastic elements in service on spaceborne antenna.In addition,examination by metallurgical microscope shows evidence of enhancement of the mechanical properties by the electromagnetic coupling field.Broken grain boundaries and more evenly distributed carbides were observed.Positive effects on mechanical properties are attributed to the fine grain strengthening and precipitation strengthening.According to the analysis,the reinforcement effect of the spring is formed by the coupling of factors such as the Joule heating effect of the electric field,the electronic wind effect,and the magneto-vibration of the magnetic field.Hence,the electromagnetic coupling treatment significantly influences the stability and mechanical properties of the spaceborne elastic components,and this technology has excellent prospects in the future aerospace field.
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    Effects of discharge channel aspect ratio on performance of Hall thruster
    LI Chunbo, GUO Ning, YANG Sanxiang, GAO Jun, XUE Jiaqiang
    2024, 44 (1):  99-105.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0011
    Abstract ( 68 )   PDF (3775KB) ( 77 )   Save
    To obtain the optimal matching relationship between the length and width of the discharge channel of the Hall thruster and to improve the thruster performance,a one-dimensional fluid model relying on the LHT-70 Hall thruster developed by the Lanzhou Institute of Physics was used to study the influence of the anode propellant flow rate on specific impulse and thrust,and the rationality of the model was verified by comparing it with the experimental data.On this basis,the effect of the discharge channel aspect ratio α(the ratio of length to width)on the performance of the Hall thruster was studied.The results show that with the increase of the discharge channel aspect ratio,the electron temperature decreases,the electron density increases,the ionization rate increases,and the ion density increases.However,due to the increase in neutral atom density and ion wall loss,the propellant utilization rate decreases.The potential drop at the exit of the discharge channel,the specific impulse,thrust and efficiency first increase and then decrease.It can be seen from the trend of propellant utilization rate,specific impulse,thrust and efficiency changing with the increase of the discharge channel aspect ratio that when the volume and internal radius of the discharge channel are fixed,the length is increased,and the discharge channel aspect ratio is 1.80~2.05,the performance of the Hall thruster reaches the optimum.The results will provide theoretical guidance for the optimal design of Hall thrusters.
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    An autonomous orbit determination algorithm for spacecraft using extended service of BDS inter-satellite-link
    SHAO Ruiqiang, CHANG Jiachao, LIN Xia, TAN Shuangjie, GONG Wenbin, LIN Baojun
    2024, 44 (1):  106-113.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0012
    Abstract ( 80 )   PDF (2274KB) ( 84 )   Save
     The autonomous orbit determination and time synchronization algorithm of spacecraft that uses the extended service of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System(BDS)  inter-satellite-link(ISL) was focused on.An orbit determination and time synchronization algorithm based on polynomial fitting was put forward,aiming at avoiding the constraint in traditional algorithm that the initial orbit and clock parameters are necessary for using ISL two-way ranging measurements.The algorithm will expand the application scenarios of BDS ISL effectively.In the proposed algorithm,the spacecraft’ s orbit and clock bias were described by polynomial and its coefficients were estimated based on least squares algorithm and ISL two-way ranging measurements.Thus,the spacecraft’ s orbit and clock parameters could be calculated.The test results based on onboard ISL two-way ranging measurements show that the orbit determination and time synchronization accuracy of the proposed algorithm can achieve less than 0.12m,which proves its feasibility.
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    Relative navigation filtering algorithm based on adaptive centered error entropy
    ZHANG Shuang, CAO Lu, YANG Baojian, JI Mingjiang
    2024, 44 (1):  114-123.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0013
    Abstract ( 81 )   PDF (7753KB) ( 74 )   Save
     The centered error entropy Kalman filter algorithm has strong robustness under nonGaussian noise,but it still faces the challenge of how to choose the weight coefficient.To solve this issue,an adaptive centered error entropy Kalman filter algorithm with a variable weight coefficient was proposed.The weight coefficient is adaptively adjusted according to the error vector,which increases the sensitivity of the cost function to the error and improves the filtering accuracy.By applying to relative navigation of formation satellites,the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the Kalman filter and the centered error entropy Kalman filter algorithms when dealing with the state estimation problem in the linear non-Gaussian system.A higher filtering accuracy and a stronger ability to suppress non-Gaussian noise are presented.
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    Influence of ionosphere on radiation imaging for Moon-based Earth observation platform
    YUAN Linan, LIAO Jingjuan, DONG Shuli, WU Wenbo, HE Qiangmin
    2024, 44 (1):  124-134.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0014
    Abstract ( 70 )   PDF (6834KB) ( 79 )   Save
    Moon-based Earth observation is a new space observation method,which conducts continuous and long-term observations of the Earth through the Moon platform.It has unique disadvantages such as large viewing angle,high width,multi-angle imaging,high time resolution,and long design life.The ionosphere is located in the high-altitude area up to 1000km above the Earth's surface,and it is an important factor affecting the quality of Moon-based Earth observation imaging.To explore the thermal infrared and microwave radiation characteristic for Moon-based Earth observation,the ionosphere influence on microwave imaging for Moon-based Earth observation platform was analyzed,and the attenuation value in microwave radiation brightness temperature under different latitude areas was simulated.First,the ionospheric electron concentration and the refractive index change law were estimated based on the Chapman distribution.Then the attenuation for different heights as well as transmission paths during ionosphere passing through were calculated,which used the observed zenith angle,collision frequency,etc.Finally,the integration method was adopted to obtain the thermal infrared and microwave energy attenuation in the ionosphere.Results show that the thermal infrared and microwave energy attenuation in the ionosphere of Moon-based Earth observation platform depends on the collision frequency,band,and viewing zenith angle.The ionosphere has greater effect on thermal infrared imaging than microwave imaging for Moon-based Earth observation.In addition,the Moon-based microwave brightness temperature value in the low latitude regions is greatly affected by the ionosphere attenuation with a decrease of about 1.304K,followed by the mid-latitude regions.
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    Diving forward-looking  imaging method for spaceborne-missile bistatic SAR based on series reversion
    XI Zirui, DUAN Chongdi, ZUO Weihua, LI Caipin, LI Dongtao
    2024, 44 (1):  135-143.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0015
    Abstract ( 68 )   PDF (4523KB) ( 62 )   Save
     Because of the vertical acceleration of the missile in the diving phase,the magnitude and direction of the velocity are constantly changing,and the flight trajectory is moving along the curve,resulting in a very complex instantaneous slope distance,which causes serious distance migration phenomenon.And there is a serious two-dimensional coupling problem between the azimuth and range direction.A spaceborne-missile bistatic SAR diving forward-looking imaging algorithm was proposed for this problem.The algorithm was based on the characteristics of the bistatic SAR system,built a bistatic trajectory model,performed Doppler frequency correction in the range-frequency domain and azimuth-time domain,and then used the idea of series reversion to derive the two-dimensional spectral expression of the echo signal,followed by distance migration correction,distance and azimuthal compression in the two-dimensional frequency domain to determine the target imaging position and complete the imaging focus.Finally,the feasibility and effectiveness of the algorithm were verified by computational analysis and simulation.The algorithm can realize the detection and differentiation of multiple targets as well as the integration function of detection and fight,which are of value to the military operations.
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    A new multi-target tracking method for video satellite data
    CHEN Haitao, MA Jun, LI Feng, LU Ming, LU Xiaotian, ZHANG Nan
    2024, 44 (1):  144-153.  doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2024.0016
    Abstract ( 139 )   PDF (4414KB) ( 192 )   Save
     With the widespread use of area array detectors,multitarget tracking for video satellites has become of great significance.However,for multi-target tracking methods based on graph structure,in the construction of graphs,most of them extract clues from adjacent frames,ignoring the previous frame clues.In response to the above problems,an end-to-end graph network framework was proposed to construct the nodes,edges and global variables of the graph,using various clues such as motion features,appearance features,and topology information extracted from multiple frames.A key principle to realize this unified framework is to design compatible feature representations and graph network update mechanisms for different clues and different sources(trajectories and detection targets).The framework operated in a feed-forward fashion and trained on line.Being evaluated on the public datasets VISO,MOT16,MOT17 benchmarks,the multi-target tracking accuracy of 99.8%,48.8% and 51.8% was achieved respectively,which was better than other related multi-target tracking algorithms.And the ablation experiments were used to verify the improvement that each clue tracks multiple targets.The effectiveness of performance improvement will have a wide range of application scenarios in many fields such as smart transportation,smart cities,and military warfare in the future.
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